Anal Fissure

An anal fissure is a small cut or tear in the skin lining the anus. Childbirth, straining during bowel movements, or bouts of constipation or diarrhea can all tear the anal lining. Anal fissures are usually not a cause for concern and most heal without any medical treatment.

Major Symptoms of Anal Fissure:

-a visible tear in the skin around your anus
-a skin tag, or small lump of skin, next to the tear
-sharp pain in the anal area during bowel movements
-streaks of blood on stools or on tissue paper after wiping
-burning or itching in the anal area

Major Causes of Anal Fissure:

-Chronic constipation
-Frequent diarrhea
-Crohn’s disease or another IBD
-Straining during childbirth
-Decreased blood flow to the anorectal area
-Overly tight or spastic anal sphincter muscles

Natural Treatment for Anal Fissure:

1. Olive Oil – Mix equal amounts of olive oil, honey and beeswax in a bowl. Warm it in a microwave until the beeswax melts completely. Allow it to cool, then apply it on the affected area. Repeat a few times daily.

2. Aloe Vera – Cut off one leaf of an aloe vera plant. Slice it lengthwise and use a spoon to scrape out the gel. Apply some of this gel on the affected area. Do this a few times a day.

Additional Tips to Follow:

1. Include high fiber foods in your diet every day. Fruits, vegetables, beans and whole grains are good choices.
2. Avoid spicy food and those that are hard to digest as these would cause further irritation and difficulty in the passage of stools. Examples include chilly peppers, popcorn, chilly seeds etc.
3. Keep drinking lots of water, juices and other fluids throughout the day. Ideally you should drink at least eight to ten glasses of water in a day.
4. You can ask your doctor to prescribe a fiber supplement everyday if you think your body needs it.
5. Get some exercise every day. You should do some moderate exercises for about two and a half hours a week. If you indulge in rigorous exercises, an hour and a half of exercises in a week is usually sufficient.
6. To get relief from the tissue inflammation, you can sit in a tub of warm water for about half an hour. Repeat this twice or thrice a day. This process will help the internal anal sphincter muscles to relax and heal.

Foods to avoid:

If you have an anal fissure, you will need to avoid eating certain foods.
1. White flour and sugar – you should not have pastries, cakes, biscuits, preservatives, cheese and rice.
2. Spicy foodS – do not eat spicy foods when you are trying to treat anal fissure or in a anal fissure diet.
3. High fat snacks – doughnuts, potato chips, cheese products (including pizza), fried foods, and marbled meats.
4. Processed foods – such as packaged foods and frozen meals.

How to prevent Anal Fissure:

1. Get Plenty of Fiber – Get plenty of fiber in your diet, especially from fruits and vegetables. Get 20 to 35 grams of fiber per day. Foods that are good sources include:
· Wheat bran
· Oat bran
· Whole grains, including brown rice, oatmeal, popcorn, and whole-grain pastas, cereals, and breads
· Peas and beans
· Seeds and nuts
· Citrus fruits
· Prunes and prune juice
If you can’t get enough fiber through your diet, try fiber supplements. Also, drink plenty of liquids as you take in more fiber. This will help you avoid bloating and gas.

2. Stay Hydrated –  Drinking plenty of liquids. Be sure to drink more when the weather gets warmer or as you become more physically active.
3. Exercise – Exercise for at least 30 minutes most days to help keep your digestive system moving and in good shape. Work toward 150 minutes or more per week.
4. Don’t Ignore Your Urge to Go – If your body tells you it’s time to have a bowel movement, don’t put it off till later. Waiting too long or too often can weaken the signals that let you know it’s time to go. The longer you hold it in, the dryer and harder it can get, which makes it tougher to pass.
5. Practice Healthy Bowel Habits – Check these habits regularly to lower your risk of getting a painful anal fissure:
·When using the bathroom, give yourself enough time to pass bowel movements comfortably. But don’t sit on the toilet too long.
·Don’t strain while passing stools.
·Keep the anal area dry.
·Gently clean yourself after each bowel movement.
·Use soft, dye-free, and scent-free toilet paper or wipes.
·Get treatment for ongoing diarrhea.



Dust Allergy

Dust allergies are particularly difficult to deal with as they can be triggered by a host of agents and are difficult to control once the body reacts to an allergen.

Symptoms of Dust Allergy:

  • Sneezing
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Red, itchy or teary eyes
  • Wheezing, coughing, tightness in the chest and shortness of breath
  • Itching

Causes of Dust Allergy:

  • Dust mites
  • Cockroaches
  • Mold
  • Pollen
  • Pet hair, fur or feathers

Home Remedies for Dust Allergy:

1. Nasal Wash or Saline Solution

  • Mix a teaspoon of salt in a glass of warm water and add a pinch of baking soda.
  • Sniff a bit of the solution into one nostril at a time and allow the wash to drain back through your mouth or nose.
  • Repeat by sniffing the wash through the other nostril.
  • Doing this about four or five times helps to reduce nasal irritation and gives you relief from dust allergy.

2. Body Wash

  • Wash your face, arms and hands as soon as you get indoors to get rid of pollen, dirt and other allergens that could trigger an allergy.
  • If you have spent an entire day outdoors, it is advisable to take a bath and wash your hair as well, as pollens sticking to your hair can trickle down and tickle the nose.
  • If you are having an allergy attack, wash your eyes and nostrils immediately to ease the sneezing and inflammation. Take cup water in your folded palm and blink rapidly about three or four times to wash your eyes. Use the same technique to clean your nostrils of irritants.

3. Peppermint Tea

  •  Place handful of dried peppermint leaves in a glass filled two thirds to the brim with water.
  • Bring the water to boil with the leaves in it.
  • Allow the mixture to steep for about ten minutes, strain, cool and drink the tea.

4. Steam

  • Boil about 250 ml of water in a large bowl.
  • When you see steam rising, drape a towel over your head and gently inhale the steam for about ten minutes.
  • Hold your position for as long as you can before surfacing to breathe in fresh air.
  • Once the water has cooled sufficiently and is lukewarm, dip a clean wash cloth in it and hold it to your sinuses for relief from an allergic reaction.

6. Apple Cider Vinegar

  • Mix a teaspoon of organic apple cider vinegar in a glass of water and drink the solution thrice a day. This tonic helps to cure allergy symptoms as well as prevent further attacks.

7. Local Honey

  • Drink a teaspoon of honey to ease allergic reaction symptoms.
  •  Dip a clean cotton ball in a drop of honey and gently dab on rashes and blisters on your hands, legs and elsewhere on the body, triggered by the allergic reaction.

8. Green Tea

  • Soak a tea bag of green tea in a cup of boiling water and drink the brew to relieve sneezing, inflammation of the nasal tract and pain in the sinuses.
  • Once the teabag has been drained, gently rub the bag along your skin where the rashes are most prominent.
  • Drink green tea at least twice a day in the season you are most vulnerable to allergies, to prevent an attack.

9. Ghee

  • Dip a clean cotton ball in ghee and gently dab it on rashes and blemishes that have broken out on your skin. Ghee reduces the itch and swelling to quell the allergic reaction of the body.

How to prevent Dust Allergy:

  • Ensure you wear a scarf with your nose and mouth covered when you are outdoors during the pollen season.
  • Cover your nose when you are dusting furniture at home, cleaning your closet or accessing areas of your home.
  • Remove wall-to-wall carpets, particularly in the bedroom.
  • Keep pets out of the bedroom, and preferably out of the house.
  • Minimize household humidity.
  • Use “mite-proof” cases on mattresses and pillows; wash bed linens frequently in hot water.
  • Install a high-efficiency media filter in your furnace and air conditioning unit.



Celiac Disease (Wheat Allergy)

Celiac disease is a problem some people have with foods that contain gluten. Gluten is a type of protein. It’s found in the grains wheat, barley, rye, and triticale (a wheat-rye cross).
When you have this disease and you eat food with gluten in it, the gluten triggers an immune response that is not normal. This damages the inside of your small intestine so that it can’t do a good job of absorbing nutrients from your food.

It’s important to get treatment, because celiac disease can:

  • Lead to anemia.
  • Lead to osteoporosis.
  • Raise your risk of lymphoma.

Major Symptoms of  Celiac disease:

  • Anemia, usually resulting from iron deficiency
  • Loss of bone density (osteoporosis) or softening of bone (osteomalacia)
  • Itchy, blistery skin rash (dermatitis herpetiformis)
  • Damage to dental enamel
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Headaches and fatigue
  • Nervous system injury, including numbness and tingling in the feet and hands, possible problems with balance, and cognitive impairment
  • Joint pain
  • Reduced functioning of the spleen (hyposplenism)
  • Acid reflux and heartburn

Major Causes of Celiac disease:

Celiac disease occurs from an interaction between genes, eating foods with gluten and other environmental factors, but the precise cause isn’t known. Infant feeding practices, gastrointestinal infections and gut bacteria might contribute to developing celiac disease.

Natural Treatment for Celiac disease:

  1. Gluten-Free Diet: eliminate anything that contains gluten like.
    -wheat, barley, rye, and spelt.
    -bread and grain products, as well as imitation meats, ice cream, ketchup, desserts, baked goods, soy sauce.
    -mashed potatoes.
  1. Eat foods like vegetables, fruits, meat, and poultry.
  2. Take Fish Oil
  3. Take Yogurt in your diet

How to prevent Celiac Disease:

  1. Eating a gluten-free diet – avoid products that may contain grains, such as:
    -Wheat, barley, rye and triticale
    -Wheat flours and processed meat products
    -Sauces and seasonings
    -Drinks and baked goods.
  2. Avoid consuming grains and grain byproducts, especially wheat.
  3. Diagnose the disease as early as possible.


The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the front of your neck. It produces tetraiodothyronine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which are two primary hormones that control how your cells use energy. Your thyroid gland regulates your metabolism through the release of these hormones.

Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid disease, is a common disorder. With hypothyroidism, your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.

Major Symptoms of Hypothyroidism are:

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Weight gain or increased difficulty losing weight
  • Coarse, dry hair
  • Dry, rough pale skin
  • Hair loss
  • Cold intolerance (you can’t tolerate cold temperatures like those around you)
  • Muscle cramps and frequent muscle aches.

Natural Remedies to cure Hypothyroidism:

  1. Coriander – Soak about two tablespoon of coriander seeds overnight in a glass of water. Boil this water mix in the morning and have it empty stomach. This will help you in normal functioning of thyroid glands.

Dietary Tips : Foods you can take

  1. Antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables like Blueberries, tomatoes, bell peppers, and other foods rich in antioxidants.
  2. Eating selenium-rich foods, such as sunflower seeds or Brazil nuts, can be beneficial.

Dietary Tips : Foods you have to avoid

  • Vegetables – Broccoli, Cabbage, Brussels Sprouts, Cauliflower, Kale, Spinach, Turnips, Millet, and Mustard Greens.
  • Nuts and Beans – Soybeans, Peanuts, Linseed, and Pine Nuts.
  • Fruits – Strawberries and Peaches.
  • Iodine-rich foods
  • Iron and calcium supplements
  • Too much High-fiber foods


The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the front of your neck. It produces tetraiodothyronine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which are two primary hormones that control how your cells use energy. Your thyroid gland regulates your metabolism through the release of these hormones.

Hyperthyroidism, also know as Overactive Thyroid, occurs when the thyroid makes too much T4, T3, or both.

Major Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism are:

  • Appetite change (decrease or increase)
  • Difficulty sleeping (insomnia)
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent bowel movement—perhaps diarrhea
  • Heart palpitations
  • Heat intolerance
  • Increased sweating
  • Irritability
  • Light menstrual periods—perhaps even missed periods
  • Mental disturbances
  • Muscle weakness
  • Nervousness
  • Problems with fertility
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sudden paralysis
  • Tremor/shakiness
  • Vision changes
  • Weight loss-but perhaps weight gain
  • Dizziness
  • Thinning of hair
  • Itching and hives
  • Possible increase in blood sugar

Natural remedies to cure Hyper-Thyroid:

  1. Lemon Balm – Add two tablespoons of lemon balm to one cup of boiling water. Let it steep for about five minutes. Strain and drink this tea 3 times a day.
  2. Indian Gooseberry (Amla) – Mix Indian gooseberry powder with honey to make a thick paste and eat it in the morning before breakfast.

Dietary Tips : Foods to be included in diet

  1. Consume nutritious foods like barley, oatmeal, whole-grain pasta, yams and lentils.
  2. Take food which is fiber-rich carbohydrate sources.
  3. Take carrots, asparagus, green beans, onions, garlic, lettuce and bell peppers.
  4. In place of red meat, take fish, skinless white-meat poultry and legumes for protein.
  5. Focus on whole foods, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds and whole grains over processed fare.
  6. Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water or other non-caffeinated, non-alcoholic drinks, such as low-fat dairy or nondairy milk, sparkling water with lemon and herbal teas.
  7. Soy products – Try to include nuts, quinoa, eggs, farmed fish and legumes in your diet.
  8. Berries – You can eat different types of berries such as blueberries, blackberries, strawberries, cherries and others.
  9. Broccoli – eat uncooked broccoli as much as possible. Other cruciferous vegetables that may be helpful are brussel sprouts, cauliflower, rutabaga, turnips, kohlrabi, kale, mustard greens, and radishes.
  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids – Increase the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in your diet by eating more fish, grass-fed animal products, flax seeds, and walnuts.
  11. Take Cabbage – For best results, eat uncooked cabbage.

Dietary Tips: Foods to be avoided

  1. Iodine Rich Foods – seaweeds, kelp, other sea foods and iodized salt in excess.
  2. Caffeine – avoid stimulants like coffee, sugar or other caffeinated or stimulating food. Replace caffeinated drinks with water or healthy fruit juices.
  3. Whole Milk – avoid whole milk. Consume skimmed milk.
  4. Enriched Flour – Replace the enriched pasta, bread, snacks, cereals with 100 % whole grains like brown rice, barley, quinoa, air- popped popcorn, whole wheat breads etc.
  5. Added Sugars – Avoid food and beverages like soft drinks, pancake syrups, Jam/jelly, cookies, cakes, pastries candy, fat-free frozen yogurt etc.
  6. Red Meat – Include more lean proteins such as cold water fish such as salmon, tuna, herring, mackerel and beans and avoid red meat to reduce inflammation caused by hyperthyroidism.  Avoid processed, fried, sauce –topped meats.
  7. Avoid Allergic Foods – avoid foods that trigger allergic reactions in you. Allergies from food include lactose intolerance, gluten intolerance, peanut allergies, wheat allergies, allergic reaction caused by food additives etc.
  8. Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil – Avoid eating crackers, cookies, doughnuts, margarine, pie crusts, onion rings which are commercially prepared.
  9. Dairy Products – Avoid dairy products if you experience indigestion, bloating or fatigue after consuming milk, cheese, ice cream, yoghurt etc.
  10. Alcohol – Limit or avoid wine, beer, cocktails and other alcoholic beverages

Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)

Hypoglycemia is the medical term for low blood sugar. It typically occurs as a side effect of medications for diabetes. Low blood sugar can happen in people with diabetes who take medicines that increase insulin levels in the body.

Major Symptoms of Low Blood Sugar are:

  • blurry vision
  • rapid heartbeat
  • sudden mood changes
  • sudden nervousness
  • unexplained fatigue
  • pale skin
  • headache
  • hunger
  • shaking
  • sweating
  • difficulty sleeping
  • skin tingling
  • trouble thinking clearly or concentrating
  • loss of consciousness

Major Causes of Low Blood Sugar are:

  • Diabetes
  • Medications
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Some critical illnesses – tumors, disturbed liver, disturbed adrenal gland functions and stress
  • Insulin overproduction
  • Hormone deficiencies
  • Excessive consumption of refined foods

Natural Remedies to cure Low Blood Sugar:

  1. Liquorice root – Cut the root in pieces and add to boiling water and boil this for five minutes, the patient can drink this once a day.
  2. Apple – Two apples should be taken after meal everyday for better results.
  3. Wild yam – Yam should be boiled in water and left for an hour before drinking. The dried powdered root can be made into a paste, and this paste should be added to milk or a glass of warm water and consumed.
  4. Molasses – Take a little molasses and add to a glass of warm water, drink this at least twice daily to improve blood sugar level.
  5. Dandelion root – Powder the root and mix the powder in a glass of milk or warm water, take this mix daily for better results. An concoction made of this root can be taken twice daily.
  6. Parsley – Juice extracted from the leaves of parsley can be taken daily to rejuvenate liver and pancreas.
  7. Tomatoes – Drinking juice of tomatoes, twice daily, for two weeks, is very effective way to alleviating pancreatic disorders which cause low blood sugar. Fresh tomatoes also can be included in the diet for better results.
  8. Sunflower seeds – Sunflower seeds can be eaten in raw form or can be powdered and added to water, taking sunflower seeds daily, is a very effective natural cure for low blood sugar.
  9. Pumpkin seeds – Powder pumpkin seeds and mix in a glass of milk or warm water and drink for beneficial results.
  10. Gentian root – Take gentian root and dip in boiling water , to make a concoction and drink this twice daily.
  11. Barley – Barley is a first-rate food for patients if type 2 diabetes or people diagnosed with low blood sugar.

Dietary Tips:

  1. The diet should be supplemented with meat (for magnesium), dairy products and substitutes (for proteins), bread and whole grain substitutes (for carbohydrates and dietary fiber) and vegetables or fresh fruit (for fiber and antioxidants).
  2. Take food rich in chromium such as brewer’s yeast, potatoes, peas, oysters, whole wheat bread, shredded wheat breakfast cereal, rye bread and wheat germ.
  3. Take food rich in magnesium include halibut, tuna, artichoke, banana, dry figs, barley, oat bran, prune juice, milk, yoghurt, almonds, brazil nut, cashew, beans, broccoli, pumpkin seeds, soybean, spinach, sweet potatoes and potatoes.
  4. Take food rich in Vitamin B3 include tuna, crimini mushrooms, halibut, salmon, asparagus, venison and chicken breast.
  5. Consume around 25-40 g of dietary fiber per day. Psyllium, Oat bran, apple pectin, whole meal cereals and ground flax seed are rich in fiber.
  6. Take food rich in Proteins like nuts, seeds, roasted soy beans and cheese. Canned fish like sardines, tuna, mackerel and salmon are great sources of protein and can be added to the diet.

How to prevent Low Blood Sugar:

  1. Understand your medications.
  2. If using a fast-acting insulin, pay attention to blood glucose levels one to two hours after injection.
  3. Avoid insulin mix-ups – If you use more than one type of insulin, store vials or pens in different locations (away from sunlight and at comfortable room temperature).
  4. Know the symptoms – Having a good working knowledge of hypoglycemia symptoms, including those you haven’t personally felt, will help you opt to treat rather than ignore the symptoms.
  5. Carry a glucose source at all times.
  6. Get enough sleep.
  7. Eat when you plan to eat – The top reason people ended up in the emergency room for a severe low in a recent study was taking insulin and then not eating.
  8. Pay attention to physical activity


High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia)

High Blood Sugar is also known as Diabetes or Hyperglycemia. There are 2 types of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body doesn’t produce any insulin, whereas, people with type 2 diabetes either don’t produce enough insulin or their cells resist the insulin, and they tend to be overweight, because the high insulin levels, unable to channel glucose into muscle cells, convert glucose into fat and cholesterol instead.

While type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin injections, which help glucose get into the body cells and maintain blood glucose control, type 2 diabetics commonly use glucose-lowering drugs. Most diabetics are type 2 and are usually in their 40s.

Normal Sugar Levels

  • When Fasting:  4.0 to 6.0 mmol/L (72 to 108 mg/dL)
  • 2 hours after eating:  7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL)

Major Symptoms of High Blood Sugar are:

  • Increased thirst
  • Headaches
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Blurred vision
  • Frequent peeing
  • Fatigue (weak, tired feeling)
  • Weight loss
  • Blood sugar more than 180 mg/dL
  • Vaginal and skin infections
  • Slow-healing cuts and sores
  • Nerve damage causing painful cold or insensitive feet, loss of hair on the lower extremities, or erectile dysfunction
  • Stomach and intestinal problems such as chronic constipation or diarrhea
  • Damage to your eyes, blood vessels, or kidneys

Major Causes of High Blood Sugar are:

  • Skip or forget your insulin or oral glucose-lowering medicine
  • Eat too many grams of carbohydrates for the amount of insulin you took, or eat too many carbs in general
  • Have an infection
  • Illness
  • Mental stress
  • Become inactive or exercise less than usual
  • Take part in strenuous physical activity, especially when your blood sugar levels are high and insulin levels are low

Natural Remedies to cure High Blood Sugar:

  1. Bitter Gourd
  • Drink some bitter gourd juice on an empty stomach each morning. First remove the seeds of two to three bitter gourds and use a juicer to extract the juice. Add some water and then drink it. Follow this treatment daily in the morning for at least two months.
  • Also, you can include one dish made of bitter gourd daily in your diet.
  1. Cinnamon
  • Mix one-half to one teaspoon of cinnamon in a cup of warm water. Drink it daily.
  • Another option is to boil two to four cinnamon sticks in one cup of water and allow it to steep for 20 minutes. Drink this solution daily until you see improvement.
  • You can also add cinnamon to warm beverages, smoothies and baked goods.
  1. Fenugreek
  • Soak two tablespoons of fenugreek seeds in water overnight. Drink the water along with the seeds in the morning on an empty stomach. Follow this remedy without fail for a few months to bring down your glucose level.
  • Another option is to eat two tablespoons of powdered fenugreek seeds daily with milk.
  1. Indian Gooseberry (Amla)
  • Take two to three Indian gooseberries, remove the seeds and grind it into a fine paste. Put the paste in a cloth and squeeze out the juice. Mix two tablespoon of the juice in one cup of water and drink it daily on an empty stomach.
  • Alternatively, mix one tablespoon of Indian gooseberry juice in a cup of bitter gourd juice and drink it daily for a few months.
  1. Black Plum or Indian Black Berry (Jambul)
  • Try to include it in your diet as it can be very effective for the pancreas. Else you can make a powder of dried seeds of Jambul fruit and eat this powder with water twice a day.
  1. Mango Leaves
  • Soak 10 to 15 tender mango leaves in a glass of water overnight. In the morning, filter the water and drink it on an empty stomach.
  • You can also dry the leaves in the shade and grind them. Eat one-half teaspoon of powdered mango leaves two times daily.
  1. Curry Leaves
  • Simply chew about 10 fresh curry leaves daily in the morning. For best results, continue this treatment for three to four months.
  1. Aloe Vera
  • Mix together one-half teaspoon each of ground bay leaves and turmeric and one tablespoon of aloe vera gel. Consume it twice daily, before lunch and dinner.
  1. Guava
  • Eating guava can be really helpful in maintaining the blood sugar level. It is best for diabetics not to eat the skin of the fruit so peel it first. However, too much consumption of guava in a day is not recommended.
  1. Okra
  • Cut off the ends of a few okras and prick them in several places using a fork. Soak the okras in a glass of water overnight. In the morning, discard the okras and drink the water on an empty stomach. Do this daily for several weeks.

How to Prevent High Blood Sugar Level:

  1. Get plenty of fiber in your diet.
  2. Get daily exposure to sunlight for Vitamin-D, which is essential for insulin production.
  3. Drink plenty of water throughout the day. In fact, replace your regular sodas and sugary juices with water.
  4. Try deep breathing, meditation, listening to your favorite music, or working on your hobby to relieve stress as it may raise your blood sugar.
  5. Control Your Weight.
  6. Do exercise regularly.
  7. Be physically active.
  8. Choose whole grains and whole grain products over highly processed carbohydrates.
  9. Skip the sugary drinks, and choose water, coffee, or tea instead.
  10. Choose good fats instead of bad fats – Good fats, such as the polyunsaturated fats found in liquid vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds.
  11. Avoid bad fats which are found in many margarines, packaged baked goods, fried foods in most fast-food restaurants, and any product that lists “partially hydrogenated vegetable oil” on the label.
  12. Limit red meat and avoid processed meat; choose nuts, whole grains, poultry, or fish instead.
  13. Avoid Smoking & Alcohol.